Month: December 2019

Nearly quantized conductance plateau of vortex mode in an iron-based superconductor

When a semiconducting nanowire is coupled to a superconductor, it can be tuned to topological quantum states thought to host localized quasiparticles known as Majorana Zero Modes (MZM). MZMs are their own antiparticles, with promising applications in topological quantum computing. Due to particle-antiparticle equivalence, MZMs exhibit quantized conductance at low temperatures. While many theoretical proposals exist to realize MZMs in solid state systems, their experimental realization is confronted by non-idealities.

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Simulations show thousands of lakes in Himalaya Mountains at risk of flooding due to global warming

Three researchers with the University of Potsdam report that thousands of natural lakes in the Himalayas are at risk of bursting their moraines due to global warming and causing flooding downriver. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Georg Veh, Oliver Korup and Ariane Walz describe simulations they ran on lake models and what they showed.

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Giant magnetic ropes seen in Whale Galaxy’s halo

Using the National Science Foundation’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio telescope, a team of astronomers has captured for the first time an image of large-scale, coherent, magnetic fields in the halo of a faraway spiral galaxy, confirming theoretical modeling of how galaxies generate magnetic fields and potentially increasing knowledge of how galaxies form and evolve.

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Plants model more efficient thermal cooling method

When drops of water touch the surface of a lotus flower leaf, they form beads and roll off, collecting dust particles along the way. In contrast, water droplets on a rose petal also form beads, but remain pinned to the petal’s surface. A mechanical engineer at Washington University in St. Louis combined the two concepts to find a more efficient way for droplets to evaporate from a surface.

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Extending El Niño event predictions to a year

A group of researchers from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Beijing Normal University and Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen has found a way to predict El Niño events up to a year before they occur. In their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their complexity-based approach to better predicting the seemingly random weather events.

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Wind conditions influence water circulation and carbon dioxide concentrations in the Southern Ocean

The sea encircling Antarctica acts as a huge mixer for water from all the ocean basins—and this circulating pattern influences the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the ocean and the atmosphere. A study by an international team of researchers led by Dr. Torben Struve from the University of Oldenburg’s Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM) has now established that this complex equilibrium of water masses reacts highly sensitively to wind conditions over the Southern Ocean.

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Scientists have developed a new concept of mathematical modeling

A team of scientists from the Research Center “Fundamental Problems of Thermophysics and Mechanics,” of Samara Polytech is engaged in the construction of new mathematical models and the search for methods for their study in relation to a wide range of local nonequilibrium transport processes in various physical systems. An innovative approach developed not so long ago is based on a modern version of third-generation thermodynamics. The project of these scientists, “Development, theoretical research and experimental verification of mathematical models of oscillatory processes, heat and mass transfer and thermomechanics with two- and multiphase delays” was among the winners of the RFBR contest. Recent research results are published in the journal Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.

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